peer reviewed articles on strategic planning
Our meta‐analysis also reveals that the relationship holds across the public and private sectors and across geographic contexts. J Oncol Pract 3:9-12, 2007, Akscin J, Barr TR, Towle EL: Key practice indicators in office-based oncology practices: 2007 report on 2006 data. We thus encourage policy makers and managers everywhere to engage with SP and/or ensure their SP processes are formal and comprehensive to enhance the performance of their organizations. Everyone in the practice should know the goals and clearly understand his or her role in implementing strategies to achieve them. For a practice that is hospital based or part of a larger organization, the mission and values of the group should be consistent with those of the larger organization. For instance, rational planning is a theoretical framework for strategy formulation, whereas SP is a concrete approach used to formulate strategy. Data about the marketplace of the practice, such as demographics, economic trends, referral patterns, and competition, should be analyzed in light of whether they represent threats or opportunities. We included articles that mentioned “strategic planning” in the title or abstract. Research designs drawing on multiple data sources have typically identified smaller size effects. Such a comprehensive nature implies that SP is a process of reflection and careful consideration in which multiple options are generated and contemplated before a final course is selected. Examples and guidelines are presented here that you may draw on to implement a process that makes sense for your practice. However, as an overall robustness check (i.e., to account for studies clustering a large amount of correlations), we reran the meta‐analysis using only one average correlation per study. Is providing high-quality care to patients with cancer your entire mission? Additionally, other OP dimensions have been identified within the public administration literature but were not part of the analyzed studies in our meta‐analysis. Strategic decision making is needed now more than ever for success in oncology practice. “It pays off in the raw market intelligence we get, and we stay in touch continually rather than having a once-a-year report.”. This impact holds across sectors (private and public) and countries (U.S. and non‐U.S. Strategic management. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, The effect size for each relationship between SP and OP identified in an article was calculated. Obviously, this does not imply that there is no research from non‐U.S. Debate: The learning organization—a key construct linking strategic planning and strategic management. In one practice that had rather long wait times, the physicians believed that the patients did not mind, because “they know that when it's their turn, they'll get just as much attention as the patient before.” But the patients interviewed by Guidi cited long wait times as a top complaint and said they would mention it to others considering the practice for treatment. This resulted in 28 relevant hits. der moderne staat – Zeitschrift für Public Policy, Recht und Management. This study used a meta‐analysis, or an “analysis of analyses,” defined as “the statistical analysis of a large collection of analysis results from individual studies for the purpose of integrating the findings” (Glass 1976, 3). These findings could be used to assist in the development of more fine‐grained theorization on the SP–OP relationship. We add to a growing literature base that identifies beneficial outcomes related to organization‐environment fit, goal setting, and synoptic planning across sectors (e.g., Elbanna 2006; Vinzant and Vinzant 1996; Walker and Andrews 2015). However, this issue has not been resolved. The Begg test resulted in a z‐value of 1.88 (continuity corrected), which was insignificant at the p < .05 level. For all other dimensions the impact was weaker, but this difference was significant for only one dimension, namely organizational efficiency. A professional has done this before—many times—and thus can direct the process efficiently. For example, your vision may be to provide multidisciplinary services to your community, but your vision statement would not include a specific strategy, such as merging with a certain radiology group or recruiting two physicians. We present an overview of the articles and their assigned codes for our moderators in appendix B in the Supporting Information. The third condition explores the research design implemented in the articles and examines whether the statistical models included single or multiple data sources. Abstract. A meta‐analysis of 31 empirical studies (87 correlations) published in journals in the Social Sciences Citations Index was conducted to answer this question. Hence, it is relevant to identify whether SP is similarly effective at enhancing OP in both U.S. and non‐U.S. Evidence from the U.S. Public Transit Industry, Strategic Management Research in the Public Sector: A Review, Synthesis, and Future Directions, Elements of Strategic Planning and Management in Municipal Government: Status after Two Decades, Managerialism and the Public Services: The Anglo‐American Experience. settings mattered. Be alert to the pitfalls of discussing operational issues and trying to decide on tactics instead of identifying strategies. Integrated hedonic-utilitarian valuation of the built environment by neutrosophic INVAR method. All of these contingencies could strengthen or weaken the SP–OP relationship. The action plan must be available for tracking progress. These articles included 87 correlations between SP and OP. SWOT data for analysis is gathered ahead of time, but at the beginning of the meeting, each physician discusses how he feels about his own practice, including his workload, his satisfaction with the schedule, and other aspects of practice. Spell out steps to be taken, who will have the lead responsibility, and the milestones that will show progress. And again with the revised plan the organization should Four steps were implemented. Standard errors are clustered at the study level (. We also encourage practitioners to think about who should be involved in SP and how. Managing these kinds of details will be the responsibility of individuals assigned in the action plan. Therefore, we investigate whether there are differences in the impact of formal SP, participatory SP, and comprehensive SP on OP. Research has found that including a variety of stakeholders in SP makes the process more complex (Hendrick 2003). He holds a research master in public administration and organizational science from Utrecht University and sits on the board of Editors of Public Note, a science dissemination outlet. Oncology Associates in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, uses its face-to-face planning meeting to share personal perspectives about the practice. www.mgma.com/surveys or call 877-275-6462, American College of Physicians: Practice management check up: Examining the business health of your practice. Synoptic planning theory argues that strategic decisions should be grounded in thorough analysis and a systematic approach to decision‐making (Dror 1983). Working off-campus? They argue that involvement of suppliers, customers, shareholders and employees in strategic change easens the strategy implementation by reducing the level of resistance and opposition to strategic implementation process. However, this has been done without distinguishing between the different dimensions of OP. The Harvard policy model implies that organizational strategies should be geared toward finding a fit between the organization and its environment (Andrews 1980). Scholars writing about both private and public organizations have subscribed to this argument (e.g., Magnan and St. Onge 2005; Stazyk and Goerdel 2011). This could indicate issues of common source bias (George and Pandey 2017; Jakobsen and Jensen 2015). Advertisers, Journal of Clinical Oncology Based on the chi‐squared values, there was also significant variation in effect sizes overall, implying that further meta‐regression was validated to identify the sources of the said variation. Effective communication and cultivation of a team culture are especially important if your strategic planning results in changes or begins moving the practice in a new direction. Journal of Operations and Strategic Planning, a peer-reviewed journal seeks high quality, analytically rigorous papers in all areas of operations management (broadly defined). The group is small—currently five oncologists—and has been doing strategic planning for many years. A strategy of building a new facility or merging with another practice will ultimately involve complex actions, but initially, the work plan might specify only the steps involved in finding and retaining a consultant to present a business plan by a certain date. This distinction is included because many SP practices have emerged in the United States. However, in the current New Public Governance era, it is hard to imagine a nonparticipatory SP process (Osborne 2006). Using stakeholder management techniques can help ensure that during SP stakeholders are involved in a feasible and relevant manner. A half-day meeting can be adequate for groups that have been doing strategic planning for many years. To answer this question, as well as the call for more multidimensionality in OP research, we assess whether SP's impact on OP differs when OP is measured as efficiency, effectiveness, responsiveness, outcomes, or financial performance. Mintzberg (1994) declared the fall of SP a quarter of a century ago. figure 2 presents a funnel plot, a visual test for publication bias. Institutions A strategic plan is a tool that moves your practice toward a goal you have set. Difference‐in‐differences analysis in a natural experiment setting could be used to compare public organizations before and after such reforms. Although we did find some symmetry overall, it was clear that a large number of correlations fell outside the funnel plot confidence limits. Context in Public Policy and Management: The Missing Link? Second, we did a title and abstract search using Web of Science on August 26, 2017. To generalize the study findings to a broader population (i.e., not only the studies incorporated into the meta‐analysis), the unconditional inferences presented by random‐effects models were required. In oncology practice, where dramatic changes in reimbursement, technology, and the marketplace are just a few of the driving forces, “the future,” as Yogi Berra once said, “ain't what it used to be.” You may not be able to control the future, but strategic planning can create a direction for your practice and maximize your options for influencing your environment. Thus, they are the preferred effect size for meta‐analyses in public management and policy (Ringquist, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use, Building Evidence for Public Human Resource Management: Using Middle Range Theory to Link Theory and Data, Performance in Public Organizations: Clarifying the Conceptual Space, Emergent Strategic Management and Planning Mechanisms in Complex Adaptive Systems—The Case of the UK Best Value Initiative. Sixteen articles focused on private organizations, 10 on public organizations, and 5 included both. 2002), and the Policy and Management Cycle in Flanders (George et al. The subtle slide from strategy to planning occurs because planning is a thoroughly doable and comfortable exercise. Finally, 24 articles used single‐source data, and 9 used multiple‐source data. 139-143. Introduction. settings or that SP is not conducted beyond the United States. For instance, bigger organizations might have more resources to invest in formal and comprehensive SP processes, making it easier to achieve performance gains. First, we performed the analysis for all 87 correlations. Some think that it will take you forward forever—it won't. Over the past few decades it has become more and more important to plan for the future in order for any healthcare practice to be successful for years to come. However, the definition of a strategic plan differs among different people, according to management consultant Teri Guidi, MBA. 2018), it is a managerial approach focused on enhancing an organization's capacity to actually achieve defined strategies, goals, and plans. For example, a strategic decision may be to go forward with implementing an electronic medical record system, but the strategic planning meeting is not the place to discuss available systems, preferred data fields, or training required. September 21, 2016. Thus, in this article, three specific conditions (and five moderators) that could influence the impact that SP has on OP are assessed. 2010). Toward a Balanced Approach on Common Source Bias in Public Administration Scholarship, The Impact of Performance Management on Performance in Public Organizations: A Meta‐Analysis, Primary, Secondary, and Meta‐Analysis of Research, Organizational Correlates of Public Service Motivation: A Meta‐Analysis of Two Decades of Empirical Research, Strategic Planning Environment, Process, and Performance in Public Agencies: A Comparative Study of Departments in Milwaukee, Measuring Organizational Performance: Beyond the Triple Bottom Line, Common Method Bias in Public Management Studies, Strategic Planning and the Fiscal Performance of City Governments during the Great Recession, Impacts of Strategic Planning and Management in Municipal Government: An Analysis of Subjective Survey and Objective Production and Efficiency Measures in Norway, Goals, Strategic Planning, and Performance in Government Agencies, Building a Practically Useful Theory of Goal Setting and Task Motivation: A 35‐Year Odyssey, The Impact of Profit Sharing on the Performance of Financial Services Firms, The Entrepreneurial State: Debunking Public vs, Comparative Public Management: Why National, Environmental, and Organizational Context Matters, The Strategic Management Process at the Public Planning Unit Level, Public Management, Context, and Performance: In Quest of a More General Theory, Strategic Planning Characteristics Applied to Project Management. Such evidence is needed to ensure that public administration remains relevant for practitioners by providing evidence‐based recommendations on what works, and when (Perry 2012). Indeed, most approaches to SP incorporate attention to and analysis of both the organization and its environment, including defining strategies to ensure organization‐environment fit (Bryson 2011). The impact of SP on OP holds for both public and private organizations and in both U.S. and non‐U.S. SP can indeed offer a systematic, analytic, and deliberate approach to strategy formulation that also provides clarity within and beyond the organization on what its priorities are and how they should be addressed, as well as helps an organization find a fit with its environment. This meta‐analysis synthesized more than 20 years of empirical research on SP to identify whether SP has contributed to OP. JCO Global Oncology Do not try to take advantage of every opportunity or address every limitation identified in your SWOT analysis. We followed the recommendations of Ringquist (2013) and presented a symmetric funnel plot as a visual test of publication bias and included the Egger test and Begg test to identify the significance of publication bias in our meta‐analysis. The vision of the group must complement your practice environment, so you may find that your review of internal and external information (described in SWOT Analysis) leads you to revise your vision statement to some extent as you continue planning strategically. 2003) have indicated that studies using the same survey‐based source to measure dependent and independent variables might suffer from common source bias, especially when OP is the dependent variable. Members of the Toledo Clinic used a consultant to guide them through strategic planning, and the consultant facilitated a one-day retreat at a country club. Meanwhile, growth in patient volume may call for recruitment strategies for both physicians and midlevel providers. The mission, values, and vision of the practice should be documented, and the group should revisit them at the beginning of subsequent strategic planning meetings to validate them or make revisions if appropriate. Developing a mission statement for your practice—a statement of its basic purpose—is the first step of strategic planning and provides the foundation for the entire process. Our findings suggest the need for more middle‐range theorizing on SP in contemporary public and private organizations, raising the question, When does SP work “best”?
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