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documenting software architecture

02 12 2020

Also, when I see the size of your application map, it looks way to big and unreadable. large-scale software development project. In the User component, we can see that when a post is created, its author is automatically subscribed to that post subjects (tags). The separation between events and listeners in two different namespaces is because a component might triger an event but not listen to it, and it might listen to an event that it does not trigger, so they are somewhat independent, although I think it would be fine to put them together as well. Retrouvez Documenting Software Architectures: Views and Beyond (2nd Edition) by Paul Clements Felix Bachmann Len Bass David Garlan James Ivers Reed Little Paulo Merson Robert Nord Judith Stafford(2010-10-15) et des millions de livres en stock sur domain.eventhandlers.subdomain.MySubdomainEventHandler.class, domain.handlers.subdomain.MySubdomainCommandHandler.class To start, there are a few artefacts that we need to know: I have seen a few templates for creating ADRs, and I saw nice things in several of them, so I created my own template. So, while an ORM is a module of the application, it is not a component because it only deals with technical concerns. Level 3: Component diagram 4. The Architecture Decision Records (ADR) are actually not really about documenting the current, or future, state of an application architecture, but instead the reasons that led to it. . Yes, i do, but there must always be some way of detecting what types of code we have. Architecture must be documented in a good amount of detail and should be presented in … upcoming articles. Do you place them in the same package of the command handlers or separatly ? In this new series, learn why and how you should document software architecture. An example of good usage of an UML class diagram is to document design patterns: This is fine, this is actually great! billing, users, …) but also including purely functional modules (ie. These services are relevant because, for example, they trigger an event or are used directly by another component. They’re key to the architecture. So, the tool used to generate these diagrams should also be usable as a testing tool and included in our CI pipeline, just like unit tests are, preventing unwanted dependencies to reach production, which maintains and enforces modularity, which in turn helps reach high changeability rate and therefore high velocity of feature development. 6 Documenting a Software Architecture 6.1 Introduction Architecture documentation is often a thorny issue in IT projects. Now, I have some trouble with events in my architecture, to the point I started to restrict/limit them until I find a solution. SomeUseCase.SomeHandler.class By listener I mean a class whose public methods are all independently triggered by only one type of event, they focus on the event. In the case of the examples I have below, they were all generated by deptrac for my pet project (explicit-architecture-php), which I use for experimenting. The solution is fairly simple and it’s already mentioned in the article: Do you consider using Archimate as a graphic notation for your application map? This report compares the Software Engineering Institute's Views and Beyond approach for documenting software architectures with the documentation philosophy embodied in agile software-development methods. Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Deleting a user will trigger an event that will delete the users’ posts; Creating a post will trigger the event that will lead to both subscribing the author to the posts’ subjects and increasing the authors rating; Deleting a post, from whatever use case, triggers an event that will result in decreasing that authors’ rating. Software architecture has increasingly become important for the No human will understand such a map generated for a mid-to-large sized system. Highly recommend taking Juval Lowy’s Architect’s Master Class, it teaches how to correctly decompose a system based on volatility and how to document it. The contents of this post might make more sense if you read the previous posts in this series. introduces software architecture and the importance of documentation. A Template for Documenting Software and Firmware Architectures Version 1.3, 15-Mar-00 Michael A. Ogush, Derek Coleman, Dorothea Beringer Hewlett-Packard Product Generation Solutions Abstract This paper defines a template for producing architectural documentation. If you feel it’s a worthy project and you have free time to contribute, let me know and I will try get you up to speed and create tasks that you can pick up to bring it to the next level. 37 6.1.10 Lecturer schedules a paper 38 6.1.11 Lecturer marks a paper 38 … Regards to autogeneration, there is a great PlantUML plugin for Archimate: This content is no longer being updated or maintained. We learn how to code and we build some cool applications, and then we learn about architecture and how to make the application maintainable for several years…. เอกสารของ Architecture ในแต่ละโครงการจะเปลี่ยนไป . However, the application map you show, is for a very small system and it’s already unusable. Great article. The fact that the ADR is written before hand, doesn’t mean that it is immutable, it must be updated/improved as the discussion unfolds. Core.Component.Domain.Entity.AnEntity.class. This is important because the application map should make visible the connections between components as well as what they mean and any followup side effects, and for this we need to expose the services that wiring to other components and their names (which should express what they do). Documenting software architecture, Part Yes I must admit that I could improve the packaging to a more feature/component based style. This tells us that our application deletes posts as a result of either a direct command from a user or when a post author has been deleted. Documenting Software Architectures Software architecture has become a widely accepted conceptual basis for the development of nontrivial software in all application areas and by organizations of all sizes. I like to use event/event handler when I do things that are not strictly related to the original handler or that can be done asynchronously (like sending email/notification) or when different commands have the same consequences. But what documentation options do we have that can express the whole application building blocks and how it works?! Date archived: November 8, 2016 | First published: June 27, 2008. Stakeholders and the Communication Needs Served by Architecture By example I have “open order” command which is triggered when the “paid order” event is issued. This way of visualising a software application architecture is based on 5 views/perspectives of the application, telling us what diagrams can be used to document each of those views. The full article is provided "as is" in a PDF file. Two different kinds of architectural … So this diagram shows us the main cog wheels of a container and the relations between those cog wheels. Are there tools you recommend? They are specially important because they intend to tell others, and our future selves, why the architecture is what it is. also get an overview of the architecture views that will be covered in For that we need to either know the application very well from the user perspective, or the codebase from the developer perspective. The difference between modules and components is that a module is any modular piece of the application, while a component is a domain wise module of the application. – you need to provide an activity diagram for all use cases in your system. The application map looks very interesting, and specifically for events and events handler. Since this report is a snapshot of current work, the material described here may change before the handbook is published. That’s why I have the “OpenOrderCommand”, and it can be triggered manually or by an event handler. ( Log Out /  If we have a monolithic application with fully decoupled components, it will be fairly easy (code wise) to transform it into a Microservice Architecture. It is less readable, you don’t know exactly what the handler is doing, because when you see `bus.emit(new SomethingHappened()), you have to search for all the event handlers handling this event to know exactly what the command is doing. And because of that, the document won’t need to change much either. This article is very helpful to understand Hexagonal architecture as well, but still I am not able to make it link with my requirement. Personally I prefer source-trackable documentation formats, but have historically steered away from generated documentation because it seems to lack readability or go out of date. We will also list the event subscribers in each component, for exactly the same reasons as we list the listeners. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. In order to achieve that, the first step is to list what happens in a component when a specific capability is triggered. It provides handy semantic which looks suitably for the things you draw on your map, but it’s standardized, more or less common, and for my opinion more readable than just color elements. Documenting architecture is an important part of software development. 2. I use SharedCore to name my business Shared Kernel namespace, and Domain.Core to name my business domain core interactions (the most inner layer of the architecture, that has no dependencies except the SharedCore. The Component dependencies diagram is aimed at making sure that the application components and modules are decoupled. Architecture documentation (also known as software architecture description) is a special type of design document. Ideally, the namespaces/folder structure should communicate that on its own. You will learn about the five different views, or aspects, that you should document for any medium- to large-scale software development project. In this series, learn why and how you should document software architecture. An Application Map starts by defining the components of the application, the domain wise modules, like “Billing”, “User”, “Company”, “Orders”, “Products”, and so on. That’s why i mention that we would need some way to analyze only the use case we need. The dependency diagrams are useful to tell us about the dependencies that exist in the different types of code in our codebase. From the developerWorks archives. I’ll quickly explain the main idea in my own words, although using his own example diagrams. If this application had a Microservices Architecture, these two components would be the microservices. The command and handler files go together because they are work and change together so I apply the Package Cohesion Principles by Robert C. Martin: Any technical or non-technical person can clearly visualise what happens when any of the use cases of the application is triggered. series of posts about Software Architecture,, Architectural Blueprints—The “4+1” View Model of Software Architecture,, Joel Parker Henderson github repository about ADRs,, Java Annotated Monthly – September 2019 | IntelliJ IDEA Blog, Documenting Software Architecture – Trần Ngọc Minh Notes, Documenting Software Architecture — @herbertograca – ianwattsblog, Documenting Software Architecture – Notes de Francis, Dew Drop – August 23, 2019 (#3016) | Morning Dew,,,, Documenting Software Architecture – Ameer Academy, Lean Architecture by James Coplien and Gertrud Bjornvig, Patterns of Enterprise Application Architecture by Martin Fowler, Patterns Principles and Practices of Domain-Driven Design by Scott Millett and Nick Tune, The mythical man-month by Frederick P. Brooks, DDD, Hexagonal, Onion, Clean, CQRS, … How I put it all together, Microservices architecture: What the gurus say about it, Teams: building, managing, leading, performing, DDD Europe 2017: The 3 talks I most enjoyed, Dare to be Good Enough—You'll be Happier for it. So I came up with an idea for a new documentation diagram, which I call an Application Map, that can replace the C4 Model Component diagram. development of complex real-time systems. Where do you place your event handler in your code ? Software architectures, by definition, won’t change much over time. This post is part of The Software Architecture Chronicles, a series of posts about Software Architecture. “Application Map” is something truly important in this profession, as developers come and go but knowledge must stay. It reminds me this post by simon brown So we need a tool… which does not exist… yet! For example, if we want our events to be serializable, so that we can put them in a queue, we probably don’t want them to contain an entity because it would be problematic to unserialize it and persist it using an ORM. The component diagram shows us the components inside one container. Yes, I feel exactly the same pain as you. Now, we zoom into our application, the blue square in the diagram above which maps to the dashed square in the diagram below. On the other hand, a “Billing” module is a component because it deals with domain concerns. However, the treatment of architecture to date has largely concentrated on its design and, to a lesser extent, its validation. Furthermore, applying the same decoupling requirements to the other non domain wise modules, we can guarantee that we can easily replace any module. I’ll second the recommendation of Juval Lowy’s Architect’s Master Class: Although they are pretty good for the other diagrams. Within this category of diagram, I find it useful to have 3 different types of diagram, to assert about different dependency types. Good to know we are facing the same issue. Some time ago I started creating it, and I got to the point where only the component internal flow is missing, but it lists all the commands, services, listeners, subscribers and events. The readability is indeed a problem, but there are ways of making it more readable, ie using filters to generate only what we are interested on. There are several diagrams we can create using UML, and we can segregate them into two categories: I will not go into the details of each type of diagram because it would be too much to cover in this post, and there are plenty of resources out there documenting these diagram types. and same with output – response call back to Client service, File store and Database, Input from all these apis will be first converted to Intermediate object -> then this IO will be processed by actual application -> Response will be put as JSON, File or Database. Sometimes, if there is some, it’s out-of-date, inap-propriate and basically not very useful. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. For this level, we use an UML diagram with class level artefacts. So, we can and should use UML, but for the situations it should be used: to describe patterns, small portions of an application in detail, or high granularity views of the application with low detail (not using class diagrams). I may have done a bad design decision which do not facilitate source code navigation : event handlers are not allowed to have business code. The Layer dependency diagram analyses the dependencies between layers, but within a layer there are still dependencies that must not occur. This first article in the series You have the right idea that we need to document the dynamic behavior of the system and it would be nice to have a tool that automatically generates this. Change ). Sometime, I send events from my command handler. However, it still doesn’t tell us how all these capabilities relate to each other, for example “what happens as a consequence of a user creating a blog post?”. The SEI Series in Software Engineering represents is a collaborative undertaking of the Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute (SEI) and Addison-Wesley to develop and publish books on software engineering and related topics. But does all the action related to events need to be triggered manually ? Learn More. So now I’m starting to use more services that I reuse accross my command handlers until I find a better solution to organize/structure my events. I don’t think its possible to use those tools to have an auto generated application map. The idea is to use 4 different granularity (or zoom) levels for documenting software architecture: This is the highest granularity diagram. Furthermore, it will take so much time to create it, that when we are finished, it will probably be outdated already because someone will have made changes to the code in the mean time. Note, in the diagram below, how the modules in the same layer (nodes with the same colour) are all unaware of each other, at least directly. It can express classes, interfaces, usability and inheritance relations, data and behaviours. It would also not make sense for an event to depend on a service. Software architecture has increasingly become important for the development of complex real-time systems. Once your documentation is more oriented toward use-cases rather than static allocations, you can focus on dynamic aspects such as transaction, identity, authentication, and authorization boundaries. The Application Map is aimed at being truly a map of the application, defining its “cities” (Components), its “local roads” (use cases), “highways” (events), etc. Level 2: Container diagram 3. It’s an artefact that will take a lot of effort and time to get done and also to simply keep it up to date; We will still end up having a big diagram with a lot of lines on it, which is not the most readable. A central precept of the book is that documenting an architecture entails two essential steps: (1) documenting the set of relevant views of that architecture, and then completing the picture by (2) documenting information that transcends any single view. probably not…. and it only concern the domain part. The handbook, tentatively entitled Documenting Software Architectures, will be published in early 2002 by Addison Wesley Longman as part of the SEI Series on Software Engineering. It’s important to note that the 4+1 architectural view-model does not mandate that we use all mentioned diagrams, and not even all the views. One thing, that gets me a little bit confused that how I am going to aggregate all these APIs together (will there be a single controller or separate)? Documenting Software Architectures การนำเอกสารไปใช้ (ประโยชน์) 1. illustrations may have changed. Yes, what you say totally resonates with me. You can find the configuration used to generate them in the repository root. Documenting Software Architectures, Second Edition, provides the most complete and current guidance, independent of language or notation, on how to capture an architecture in a commonly understandable form. An ADR is a log entry about the architecture decisions that have been made and that lead to the state of the architecture as it is now or as it is intended to be in the future. In my experience, on our line of work, all type of documentation gets outdated. The Application and Domain namespaces represent layers, and each component is a vertical slice of the application, as explained by Uncle Bob, Simon Brown and others. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your account. Retrouvez Documenting Software Architectures: Views and Beyond (2nd Edition) 2nd edition by Clements, Paul, Bachmann, Felix, Bass, Len, Garlan, David, I (2010) Hardcover et des millions de livres en stock sur Following the services, we list all the event listeners in each component, even if they are not actually used, which is handy because then we can detect it and either fix whatever needs to be fixed or remove the unused code. In this context, each component is a module of the application, not restricted to domain wise modules (ie. The use of a consistent, color-coded taxonomy is also a very helpful take-away from Juval’s course. This can help us clarify our code, and our idea of the application behaviour. A component can be, for example, “Billing” containing all its use cases and Domain logic. CRP – The Common Reuse Principle – Classes that are used together are packaged together. In this new series, learn why and It is still very alpha because of the missing information, but also because it is not flexible when it comes to the code base it needs to analyse but, from the codebase of the company where I currently work at, it can generate something like this: If you are curious about the project, you can check it out here, however be advised that it is still very alpha, its just a proof of concept and I haven’t worked on it for a few months already. I don’t think Application Map would work well in a functional paradigm, where the focus is on the data that is being transformed, not components exchanging events or dependencies. domain.handlers.subdomain.MySubdomainEventHandler.class. Level 4: Code diagram The content is provided “as is.” Given the rapid evolution of technology, some content, steps, or illustrations may have changed. Documenting software architecture, Part 3, Develop the architecture overview. Core.Component.Application.Listener.WhateverListener.class In the image below, we can see that deleting a post (“DeletePost”) will trigger the deletePost() method in the PostService, which is also triggered by a listener listening to the event that notifies that a user has been deleted. This is very valuable because it tells us, or any non technical person, what each component can do. I see elements of this in the color-codings of the Application Map. It won’t be up to date, it won’t be trusted, and it won’t be used. Documenting software architectures: views and beyond Abstract: This lecture maps the concepts and templates explored in this tutorial with well-known architectural prescriptions, including the 4+1 approach of the Rational Unified Process, the Siemens Four Views approach, and the ANSI/IEEE-1471-2000 recommended best practice for documenting architectures for software-intensive systems. The use cases are the reason the system exists. Core.Component.Application.Event.WhateverEvent.class I made this decision because, we may want to trigger the command manually too. The idea is to use 4 different granularity (or zoom) levels for documenting software architecture: 1. We hold that documenting software architecture is primarily about documenting the relevant views, and then augmenting this information with relevant information that applies across views.

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