density of linen
The tex system has units measured in grams (g) per 1,000 metres (m). (To figure out the cm to inches count , multiply the threads per cm by 2.54 and you will have the threads per inch. Kathy. Sophie Passion, I order from Philipa too but haven’t tried the linen twill from Sue Hawkins. Another term is specific gravity, which is the ratio of the mass of a fiber material and the mass of an equal volume of water (density 1g/cm3). linear density (R) = T1 + T2 + T3 + … + TN, where T1, T2 … TN are the linear densities of n individual components expressed in tex. You can see the pins in the fabric showing where the top and bottom of 1 cm in length. Most of the books I’ve seen talk about using only up to 40ct, but, whilst that’s going to produce something smaller, I kinda feel it’s not quite small enough to be really convincing 1:12 scale. The source I found was Vetty Creations in Australia. Fabric density indicates the number of warp yarns and weft yarns in 1 inch2. Required fields are marked *. Linen is a material made from the fibres of the flax plant. I particularly enjoyed your comparisons of various linens with side-by-side photos. Would the linen I showed you today from Luzine Happel – be a high enough count for the doll house sized things your thinking about? I’m happy that The Unbroken Thread is a good resource for you. Kathy. NeL is an indirect measure of linear density. It was iven used for books and for a type of body armour. The fabric is called Aida and is woven to create exactly even squares of fabric with exactly spaced holes. It’s a natural fabric that comes from a plant with beautiful blue flowers. The color sound luscious! It’s called a natural linen.The color is similar to the plant after it’s been processed. Flax is an annual plant, which means it only lives for one growing season. NeS is an indirect measure of linear density. This type is often used for everyday household linens and clothing. Color coded to designate soiled linens; Labeled in English and Spanish; Strong and secure; More Info # ML3484. I think that a good quality linen makes all the difference to the outcome of my stitching projects as well as being a pleasure to work with. Linen possesses a natural crispness when ironed damp, thus does not require starching, and has a natural lustre. Good on you for being particular and doing things properly. the cross stitch linen is typically labelled as “evenweave”. Lastly the linen from Luzine Happel. So no, I’m not talking about Aida here. Or at least buy a small amount and work with the fabric. It becomes softer and more lustrous with use and laundering, so that a fine, long used piece of linen may have almost th… Left 16 threads/cm Right 20 threads/cm both from Luzine Happel. Hi Sarah, Linenspa High Density Squares- Replacement Cushion for Sofa or Chairs -Multiple Sizes Upholstery Foam, 18 X 18, 1" Depth Visit the Linenspa Store. As of 2010, lower-end linen, which is rougher than a more finely woven linen, can be found for $12.98 a yard. Liebe Grüße, 4.6 out of 5 stars 834 ratings. As for buying expensive fabric…well. You can contact Chantel James by clicking on the “Contact” link on the home page. Granted, the holes aren’t very big – compare them to the pin! Linen is used for variety of uses: from bed and bath fabrics, home and commercial furnishing items, apparel items to industrial products. Hi Dianne, I started cross stitching on Aida but found evenweave / linen and switched and never went back. What is fabric density, and how is it different to thread count? I decided to search for places with high density of mobs which I can kill and drop [Linen Cloth].I traveled around Azeroth, and after a while I made a list of places. This approach has been used by Pénicot [PEN 98] with the Kozeny–Carman model (see section 5.4.3 ) validated across a range of packing densities from 0.2 to 0.7. What is the big secret?! Although it’s a relatively high count (but not the highest!) I just wrote a long, detailed comment response to you and the internet stopped working and it disappeared! I like the fact that her pricing includes shipping so no checkout shock – I’m in Canada. I was confused by the European count method when I first began embroidering and had no idea what the equivalent to U.S. thread count was! Kathy. There are several different brands and they look very similar to what you have pictured. For some countries that use the metric system, the area is 1 cm2 and 2.54 is multiplied to convert it into the correct measurement of density. Liebe Grüße,, I’ve learnt to go to any shop I can find and see what they have. The highest count I own is 40 per inch, but I know one can get 55ct from a few UK on-line stores, only it’s really quite pricey at about 20 Euros for a fat quarter! LG, Kathy. Thank you very much for the helpful information about the various counts and types of linen. Fabric density helps explain the thickness of textile products. If you are traveling, or have the chance to buy linen from an online retailer who describes the linen in the “other” thread count from what you’re familiar with, it’s good to know what you’ll be ordering so you’re not unpleasantly surprised. The main difference between this linen and the top linen is that this one is much rougher in the hand. It has an elongation at break of 2.7 to 3.5 … The packing density thus obtained cannot be separated from the associated pressure drop expression and does not, in any case, translate the real value of the packing density of the cake. That way the cross stitches will created the design correctly. Even if I have to pay postage its worth saving myself from making an investment in a linen that does not meet my needs. Perhaps I am, as my mother often said, splitting hairs, but I do like to do things properly… Aber wenn mann teueren Stoff kaufen muss, ist es nicht so praktisch, nö? I recently had to search very hard for some 38 ct / inch linen. GSM is to towels what thread count is to sheets. (It is expensive!) NeK is an indirect measure of linear density. (Fäden=thread in German), If I was purchasing that same linen in the USA it would say “40 count linen” on the label. This type is often used for everyday household linens and clothing. Liebe Grüße, To figure out the inches to cm count, divide the “count” by 2.54 and you will have the European size), 14 threads/cm (35 count) white linen Sophia Passion. Benefits of linen Linen is a very durable fibre and has many benefits over cotton.- Linen is 30% stronger than cotton- Has a high moisture absorbency- Hypo-allergenic 12 threads/cm natural linen from Sophia Passion. Kathy. Liebe Grüße, GSM stands for grams per square meter; it’s a measure of the density of a towel. Flax fibers vary in length from about 25 to 150 mm (1 to 6 in) and average 12–16 micrometers in diameter. I don’t get through that many projects in a year. Kathy, Your email address will not be published. Thanks for the photos and clear comparison of the various linens. The strength is greater than cotton fiber. Price … Top quality flax is primarily grown in Western Europe. I agree with you about not being able to touch and feel the linen when I purchase on-line. Thank you so much for the lesson on linen! Any questions about linen? Please let me know and I could send a tiny sample so you can see if it’s fine enough… As for price,you’re right it isn’t preiswert! Liebe Grüße’ Linen is a textile made from hairs of the flax plant. It may be bleached to white or near white, or to any stage between the original colour and white, and is found on the market at the various stages of bleaching. Glad the post helped so many of you! Price: $14.26 FREE Shipping on your first order. How many threads there are per inch or centimetre determines the number (and is the density) of the linen. Thanks for the link. I’d love some good high count stuff though, to try miniature (dolls house sized) counted thread work on.=) Do let us know if you find a preiswert supply somewhere! Use for linen has changed in time and especially in the last 30 years. Calm, slow, careful stitches gave the appearance of activity, skill and usefulness, but the mind was free to think, to be quiet, to wander... Kathy. Kathy. Be the first to write a review. Another thing that stores will do is call something ‘Belgium or Irish linen” but it’s more of a generic term than actual linen from those areas.I called one online store and asked about the Ulster linen that they sold, questioning the country of origin. She told me it is the same quality of linen used in the original. If you understand that the “count” means threads per inch then converting from a European to a North American thread count isn’t difficult. I bought it at Sophia Passion in Bayeux. Your collective knowledge is far greater than mine! Flax fibers can usually be identified by their “nodes” which add to the flexibility and texture of the fabric. Physical properties of linen fibers are given below: Tensile Strength: Linen is a strong fiber. Tina of @tinasosna on Untreated Materials, Melanie of @melanie.licht on Fast Growing Materials. While thread count is suitable to describe bed linen, fabric density is used to measure thicker woven textiles like sofa cushions, bedspreads, throws, and blankets. That’s about when I was doing cross stitch – 30 years ago! Hi Sharon, The linen from Borderie Bayeux is found in an odd place – under “other product” then go to “wool” and you will find it. Figured it out gradually by trial and error, and M. Corbet’s blog was a big help. Property Paper Canvas Linen PHYSICAL D792 Density (lb/in³) (g/cm³) 0.049 1.35 0.050 1.37 0.048 1.34 D570 Water Absorption, 24 hrs (%) 2.0 2.5 1.8 MECHANICAL D638 Tensile Strength (psi) -lengthwise -crosswise 15,000 12,000 11,000 9,000 13,000 9,000 D790 Flexural Strength (psi)-lengthwise -crosswise 16,000 13,200 17,500 15,000 22,000 16,000 It helps compare which of these are suitable for use in summer or winter: the higher the number, the heavier the product, and the more suitable it will be for colder months. Physical Properties of Linen: Physical properties of linen fibers are given below: Color: The color of linen fiber is yellowish to grey. It has a tenacity of 5.5 to 6.5 gm/den. I so enjoy your blog posts. So a linen with a “count of 12 is a much looser weave that linen with a count of 50, for example. The ideal weight for linen sheets is between 175 and 190 grams per square meter. I’ll use it for my next Bayeux Tapestry replica. I do have several online sources sending me samples of linen that they sale. This linen isn’t “heavy” but it drapes like a heavy linen. I, too, find it difficult to find like minded embroiderers! No Reviews. While thread count is suitable to describe bed linen, fabric density is used to measure thicker woven textiles like sofa cushions, bedspreads, throws, and blankets. While evidence is scant from prehistoric times, it appears that Neolithic peoples in Europe were making textiles from linen as long as 36,000 years ago.Therefore, linen is one of the longest-produced textiles, and its history may stretch back even farther than the most ancient evidence that modern archaeology has uncovered. Specified lengths of yarn are wound on reels as skein, and then weighed. I think it’s a beautiful color and looks fabulous when stitched with white or red and white threads. Herzlichen Dank, Kathy, yes 50ct would be fine enough. Elongation at break: Linen does not stress easily. Advice? Liebe GrüSe, Learn how your comment data is processed. It has a tenacity of 5.5 to 6.5 gm/den. Hi Catcus, The linen on the right comes from Broderie Bayeux and it’s count is 60! I do appreciate this blog. There are two varieties: shorter tow fibers used for coarser fabrics and longer line fibers used for finer fabrics. Sounds like what you have now it far superior! There you will find her contact details. That’s set me thinking!! Let’s talk about linen. Your email address will not be published. You didn’t say directly, but I assume one can buy linen from Broderie Bayeux? The higher the thread count or number, the more densely the linen is woven. History of Linen. Kathy. I would also love to find a good quality cotton muslin of the same thread count. It is a measurement that provides the base weight of the fabric, given as a value of grams per square metre. Her linen comes from a German supplier who she has an agreement with and I had to order through her. If anyone can enlighten us further, please let us know via the comments. Typical Properties of Phenolic Laminates (Sheet Form) Physical: Astm Test Method: Paper: Canvas: Linen: Density (lb/in^3) D792: 0.049: 0.05: 0.048: Specific Gravity Possible uses for Line Density include finding density of roads as an influence on wildlife habitat or density of utility lines in a town. The strength is greater than cotton fiber. Looking at the excellent close up photos, I’d say this linen IS evenweave, though you’d have to be careful as a lot of it isn’t. Weft = threads that run horizontally. Lyn, Glad to know you enjoy reading The Unbroken Thread – than you! As of 2010, lower-end linen, which is rougher than a more finely woven linen, can be found for $12.98 a yard. (Warp = threads that run vertically. In the USA it’s measured in threads per inch. Kathy – This linen is 12 threads/cm or 30 count linen. Sometimes the linen required needs to have fine threads with a more open weave for pulled and drawn thread projects and other times a linen is needed with a close weave and round/fat threads for surface embroidery and cut work projects. Comments? Be the first to write a review. This is the linen that Madame Chantel, the owner of the shop, uses in her kits. Thanks for the site in Australia and in Italy – we have people from all over so it helps to have as many resources as possible! Linen is sold according to thread count. It is fine linen indeed! In the past, we’ve explained the importance of thread count, and what it means for bed linen and textiles. When I go to purchase linen is says something like “16 Fäden/cm” on the label. Really enjoyed this post. Linen is the best fabric to have on your skin if you tend to overheat, and this cover is breathable but warm. Kathy, Mmm, I wonder if I do get through that much fabric?? Fabric density helps explain the thickness of textile products. In order to attain fibers of the maximum length, the plant is uprooted from the ground and the fibers are macerated. We are discussing in details the linen properties below: Linen Properties. It’s right under the word “Home”. Real linen bedding essentials for every bed from tiny toddler bed to super king – duvet covers, housewife pillowcases, ruffled pillow shams, seamless fitted sheets, flat sheets in mild white, natural gray, rose brown, dark gray and a big variety of superb colors. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Hi Wendi, Yarn linear density is often measured using standard test method ASTM D1907. It was wonderful to see the close-up photos of the threads in the different linens. I’m always on the lookout for an openweave linen with a high thread count, say between 50 and 60 threads per inch for pulled work. She says in her book, Basic Principals of Schwalm Whitework, “…your time and efforts deserve the very best fabric”. Linen is our canvas and I have to say that as a surface embroiderer it is very frustrating trying to find a high count, quality linen. I do mostly counted cross stitch on linen. Great post Kathy – very helpful. Es ist teuer! You’ll know what that means too!=). I mainly use linen twill which I buy online from UK sources (Crewel Works Co.,(very beautiful oatmeal color and super quality), Sue Hawkins (she uses a golden-tinted finer linen twill made in Belgium that I really like), and another source that I thought was of lesser quality (Lenham Needlecraft). High High-density foam is naturally the heaviest; beds with high-density foam comfort layers and support cores typically weigh 75 to 90 pounds, or more in some cases Average price Low Because low-density foam is relatively inexpensive, mattresses with this material have the lowest average price-point: about $500 to $750 The next photo is of two linens for the Bateau Bayeux project. Here’s the link in case you’re ever there. It is a measurement that provides the base weight of the fabric, given as a value of grams per square metre. SO again, and to you personally just in case… In the photo above, you see linen I ordered from Luzine Happel. überlegen – to think, consider, ponder, deliberate, http://suehawkins.com/shop/product-category/shop/tools-fabrics/fabrics/linen-twill/msy. Here is the link. And yes, the linen available from Sue Hawkins is a bit lighter weight, with almost a sheen to it (not glossy) but not flimsy, and works up beautifully. This is probably the best way to see the quality of the fabric. Yvette was very helpful and pointed me to Italian embroidery sites that appear to have a lovely selection of linens in many colours. In Len.Ok linen sheets we have this measurement of 66 yarns per inch (260 per meter) THREAD DENSITY Strength: An important property of linen is its strength. I was told with a chidding snicker ” I don’t know where its from.” Well! While the thread count is a measurement of the number of threads in a given area – that is, how tightly woven the threads are – the fabric density is another measurement indicating how much fibre is in a metre square, thereby allowing us to determine how strong and thick a fabric is. Hopefully another reader in South Arica will let us all know a good source for the kind of linen you’re looking for. I wish that the online shop owners would take advantage of the technology to show us the linen up close with some kind of ruler next to the threads so we would have a better idea of what we were ordering. For example, to convert the density from meters per square meter into miles per square meter, multiply the output density by a factor of 1,609.344 (the numbers of meters in a mile). because the threads are tight and compact, the linen has those “holes”. There are very few resources for those of us who enjoy surface embroidery more than other types of needlework. I went to Happel’s and Bayeux website but did not see the linen that either use so that I can purcase. For centuries women have done needlework. Or maybe the linen from Borderie Bayeux? Yes, well…that’s something to look forward to, isn’t it? I know it’s produced in Europe but I don’t know where or by whom and I WILL NOT pay export duty twice – once when the linen is imported to the USA and then again when I order it and must pay duty when it comes back into the EU. Elongation at break: Linen does not stress easily. it depends. Grrrr NeS (Woollen Count or Yorkshire Skein): The number of 256 yards (234 m) lengths per 1 pound (0.45 kg) of yarn. Liebe Grüße, Liebe Grüße, ... Linen's cool and comfortable wearing properties have made it a favourite summer fabric for millennia. The original flax to be used for its fibre was the wild, Linum angustifolium. This is more than a simple maths lesson though. I love it!! Liebe Grüße, The shop Sophie Passion is in Bayeux. Linen A Line Maxi Skirt. It has an elongation at break of 2.7 to 3.5 %. We specialize in supplying timeless stylish, designer-quality pure organic linen bedding for your home. Naturally it isn’t quite that straightforward: here in Europe the thread count is measured in threads per centimetre. Tensile Strength: Linen is a strong fiber. Thread counts range from as low as 20 threads per inch as used in tobacco cloth to as high as 350 threads per inch, found in typewriter ribbon fabrics. There is a post coming up about the shop in Bayeux called Broderie Bayeux and, yes, she does sell the linen.By the way, I think I answered via email but I may have missed it with school getting ready to start (tomorrow aarrgghh!) The higher the thread count or number, the more densely the linen is woven. Registered at Berlin Charlottenburg under registration number HRB 136641. From this the linear density is calculated from the weight and length of the skein. It’s s frustrating not to be able to find what you need locally and easily isn’t it? I would love a small sample of the 2 linens you mentioned, thanks for your offer!=) You have my e-mail attached to this comment, so feel free to drop me a line when you have a moment and we can arrange it. PHENOLIC SHEET - GRADE LE Linen sheets per Mil-I-24768/13, LE, Linen, LP 509, MIL P 15035, Type FBE, mil-p-18177 is available through the Professional Plastics website. The biggest difficulty about linen is where to buy it. Fabric density at least for Irish linens that make them seem warmer than wool alternatives . It sound like it is lighter weight maybe…? Legacy linen, which Mary Corbert loves, isn’t available here under that brand. “Finer linen demands good eyesight, perseverance and practice”. I really want to try some surface embroidery projects on linen, I have heard so much about it. A field of linen in the French sunshine takes my breath away! You probably go through more fabric than I do so cost is a primary consideration. It is GORGEOUS linen. Unfortunately I don’t know italian and I believe the shipping could be prohibitive to here. lol I love doing reproduction samplers. An unbroken thread of women, stitching quietly, their minds pondering, considering, thinking, deliberating...for ages and ages. Is cross stitch linen different? And the higher the GSM, the more expensive the towel. I look forward to your next posts. Oatmeal colored linen? Kathy. Its primary use is to compare the weight of certain textile products for which the thread count does not provide sufficient information; for example, whether a given product is suitable for warm or cold seasons. The linen above is 14 threads/cm OR 35 count white linen. The cost of linen varies widely and depends on the quality of the fibers used and the density of the weave. Might work for those of you in Europe though. I used to do loads of cross stitch. I often consider myself an ‘honorary German’ in that I do like to do things properly. Liebe Grüße, Yes sounds luscious, but if you put fruity and spicy colored floss on top it would look absolutely delicious! To contact Luzine Happel go to her home page and scroll down to the very bottom. The higher the GSM, the heavier the towel and the softer and more absorbent. 16 threads/cm (40 count) white linen from Luzine Happel. It’s soft. Linen is a durable fiber, as is two-three times as strong as cotton. It’s very stiff even after I wash it by hand and air dry it. There are few embroidery shops in Cape Town and little choice of linens, most are Zweigart from DMC. I agree. Linen fiber is a textile fiber obtained from the stalk of a small plant called Linum usitatissimum, it’s about one meter tall, with a few branches and small light blue flowers. The golden cast really brings out the colors in the wools. I would think that most places would offer a snippet. Share it with us! Linen fabric is made from the cellulose fibers that grow inside of the stalks of the flax plant, or Linum usitatissimum, one of the oldest cultivated plants in human history. I made this Linen Cloth Farming guide to help out players who want to farm the cloths instead of buying them from the Auction House. I generally only use what I already have these days, so I certainly won’t be buying that much in comparison to many keen stitchers.=). Higher end linen sheets may cost up to hundreds of dollars, while lower quality linen sheets can … It’s a 35 count linen I bought in the USA and I’m 99% sure it’s from Zweigert. the density values for all three fabrics are the same because they are composed of equivalent volume fractions of the same materials. I know it takes time to set it up but it sure would be helpful and, who knows!, it might boost their sales Aida is too stiff and I haven’t worked with it for probably 30 plus years now. I have to order linen on-line if I want to use higher counts. Thanks for the clarification! no voids). For all other counts, the higher the number the thinner the yarn. The count is only a little higher (the density of the threads per cm is only a little more than the linen in the first photo) but the individual threads are so thick that there aren’t any “holes” between the warp and the weft. NeK is also referred to as the spinning count. I thought the first linen I showed you (photo 2) was incredible when I open the package. A second measurement that is extremely important to understand when looking at textiles is fabric density. Kathy. They are more expensive than Aida, but a nicer hand, and easier to do “over one” or half cross stitches. Linen spinning did not really progress until James Kay of Preston invented &lsquowet spinning&rsquo in 1825. Linen fabric has a number of properties, that makes it highly useful for various applications, in industry, in home furnishings and apparels. It was a necessary skill, it was an accomplishment, it was a chance to appear to be active while giving ones mind free rein to consider, to think. Although many countries use the metric system, the density is almost always measured in inch. Hi Wendy, Flax/Linen Source. In the direct system, the linear density of plied yarn is the simple summation of linear densities of the individual components, i.e. I need to save this post for future reference. You are -as is often the case – one step ahead of me! GSM ranges from 300 to 900. The following equations are based on a rule-of-mixtures approach assuming a solid material (i.e. Here is a completely different linen from the first two. Details & FREE Returns Return this item for free. The cost of linen varies widely and depends on the quality of the fibers used and the density of the weave. Re cross stitch linen – as long as its even weave, it’ll work for cross stitch. How are these different from handkerchief linen – whole different animal? The linen on the left is the linen I am using. Thank you for the info re: linen available at Broderie Bayeux. So a linen with a “count of 12 is a much looser weave that linen with a count of 50, for example. NeL or Lea (Linen Count): The number of 300 yards (270 m) lengths per 1 pound (0.45 kg) of yarn. While the thread count is a measurement of the number of threads in a given area – that is, how tightly woven the threads are – the fabric density is another measurement indicating how much fibre is in a metre square, thereby allowing us to determine how strong and thick a fabric is. Kathy, How it feels is as important to me as the count. Some vendors only deal wholesale, stores sell linen but dont disclose the vendor, thread count etc. The density, also called volumic mass or mass density, is the mass per unit volume and has ρ as its symbol. Length: 18 to 30 inch in length. There are “holes” between the warp and the weft and, although they don’t show as clearly in the photo, they are about the same size as the linen in the top photo. She also suggests that beginners (like me) use 14 threads/cm linen. Lovely, lovely linen. What can I say RMW? In Tex, Denier, Decitex, Linen, Hemp, Jute, Woollen (Aberdeen) and Woollen (US grain); the higher the number the thicker the yarn. Vintage linen is very desirable, it’s soft and the feeling is very hard to replicate by any mechanical process. I agree with you about the threads vs the openness of the weave. It would be beautiful but you’ve made me hungry for oatmeal now…with raisins and maybe a touch of good old fashioned American brown sugar. Linen Hamper High Density Blue Soiled Linen … Ideas of where to buy linen online – if you don’t have a needlework store in your area? To help you remember here is a little rhyme I was taught: “Weft runs right to left”) The linen has a beautiful hand. But the GSM and cover factor also depend on the thread density. Looking closely, you can see that the threads are of similar thickness and that the linen has “holes” between the threads. How many threads there are per inch or centimetre determines the number (and is the density) of the linen. I think cross stitch linen is different. This is a linen that one sees often in French embroidery. It helps compare which of these are suitable for use in summer or winter: the higher the number, the heavier the product, and the more suitable it will be for colder months. Definitions of variables used: v = Volume v_f = Volume Fraction m = Mass d = Density Mass: Then I opened the second package and saw this linen: it’s only 50 count linen as opposed to the 60 count from Broderie Bayeux, but the threads are much more plump. Here’s what each weight is good for: Liebe Grüße, Linen varies from a creamy white to greyish brown, the depth of colour depending largely on the time and condition of retting. I think the hardest thing about buying linen online is that you can’t touch it. Linen is bast fiber. Blue Liners for Soiled Linens. The link is: http://suehawkins.com/shop/product-category/shop/tools-fabrics/fabrics/linen-twill/msy, Hi Sharon, Linen is a bast fiber. Left 14 threads/cm Zweigert linen – Right 24 threads/cm from Broderie Bayeaux. It is usually expressed in grams per cubic centimeter. High Density Blue Soiled Linen Liners. I’m going to go check it out right now!